Prior to this, the only other honorable way for a woman to remain unmarried was to enter a Buddhist nunnery. The traditional social and economic attachment of women to the home has so far prevented the emergence in modem China of a lesbian community on even so limited a scale as that of male homosexuals. XVI; ed. After some hesitation, the Hebrew Bible, known to Christians as the Old Testament, was taken from Judaism and also accepted as divinely inspired. From this point onwards, Christian doctrines were elaborated by a group of intellectuals, known as the Fathers of the Church or the Patristic writers, beginning with such figures as Origen, Clement of Alexandria and Tertullian.
In practice, most of these churches have been more tolerant of homosexuality than the Roman Catholic Church and its Protestant off-shoots. Augustine d.
O imbecil coletivo
It seemed to his mind more suited to his Neo-Platonic and Stoic ideals than the Christianity of his mother. In Manichaean belief, which drew heavily from Zoroastrianism, intercourse leading to procreation was particularly evil because it caused other souls to be imprisoned in bodies, thus continuing the cycle of good versus evil. Augustine was a member of the Manichaean religion for some 11 years but never reached the stage of the Elect in part because of his inability to control his sexual appetites.
Recognizing his own inability to give up sexual intercourse, Augustine finally arrived at the conclusion that the only way to control his venereal desire was through marriage. He expelled his mistress and his son from his house, became engaged to a young girl not yet of age for wedlock probably under 12 years of age , and planned a marriage. Unable to abstain from sex, he turned to prostitutes, went through a religious crisis, and in the process became converted to Christianity.
Thomas Aquinas, who held that homosexual activities, though similar to other sins of lust, were more sinful because they were also sins against nature. The sins against nature in descending order were I masturbation, 2 intercourse in an unnatural position, 3 copulation with the same sex homosexuality and lesbianism , and 4 sex with non-humans bestiality. One of the key sources in the early medieval Church is the penitential literature. Originally penance had been a way of reconciling the sinner with God and had taken place through open confession. The earliest penitentials put sexual purity at a high premium, and failure to observe the sexual regulations was classified as equal to idolatry reversion to paganism and homicide.
Ultimately public penance was replaced by private penance and confession which was regulated by the manuals or penitentials designed to guide those who were hearing them. Most of the early penitentials classified homosexual and lesbian activities as equivalent to fornication. Later ones classified such activities as equivalent to adultery although some writers distinguished between interfemoral intercourse and anal intercourse and between fellatio or oral-genital contacts. Anal intercourse was regarded as being the most serious sin. No lato sensu cht. In Catholic countries themselves, the dissolution of the Jesuit order in was preceded by accusations of sodomy.
Graciano, A Harmony of Discordant Canons There are records of homosexual monks, nuns, and priests, especially in the later Middle Ages and in early modern times, but no indication that they even thought of organizing on the basis of their sexual preference.
The evangelical fundamentalist domination of the UFMCC may be regarded as a response to the homophobic vehemence of the mainstream fundamentalist churches, which drives gay Christians out of their fold with a vengeance and forces them into an external redoubt, in contrast to the relatively more tolerant atmosphere, hospitable to internal gay caucuses [panelinhas, partidos], of the more liberal churches. Unsuccessful in politics, he was overestimated as a philosopher by the Middle Ages and the Renaissance and underestimated in modern times, but was and is ranked as one of the greatest masters of Latin style.
His career as an orator began in 81 B. In the civil war he took the side of Pompey and so failed again, but was pardoned by the victorious Caesar, after whose death he launched a rhetorical attack on Mark Antony. The formation of the triumvirate meant that Cicero was to be proscribed by his opponent and murdered by his henchmen. Also, as we know from the slightly later genre of satirical poetry, a taste for salacious gossip had taken root in the metropolis. It has been speculated that the custom originated somewhere in Africa where water was scarce and the ability to wash was limited.
Thus the Western Semites Israelites, Canaanites, Phoenicians, Arabs, Edomites, Syrians , who lived in an area where water was never really plentiful, also observed the custom, while the Eastem Semites Assyrians and Babylonians , in an area where water was more abundant, did not circumcise. This is true also of the Greeks and other Aegean peoples who always lived near the water. In the early church the party of Paul of Tarsus which opposed circumcision was victorious, and uncircumcised Greeks and Romans poured into the new faith, so that to this day the majority of European men have retained their foreskins.
With the coming of the faith of Islam, however, in the VII century the Middle East and North Africa became a stronghold of the practice of circumcision. Hindus and Buddhists avoid it, hence East Asians — and Amerindians — retain their foreskins. The mentor may also provide private lessons in manners and business acumen. Born in Athens, probably of pagan and peasant ancestry, he is not to be confused with Clement, bishop of Rome, author of the New Testament epistle. After his conversion, Clement of Alexandria traveled widely to study under Christians, finally under the learned Pantaenus in Alexandria.
Of the early Fathers, he had the most thorough knowledge of Greek literature. He quoted Homer, Hesiod, the dramatists, and most of all Platonic and Stoic philosophers. Sometime before he succeeded Pantaenus, whom he praised for his orthodoxy, as head of the catechetical school at Alexandria, but in he had to flee the persecution unleashed by the emperor Septimius Severus and perhaps died in Asia Minor. Many homosexual clergy, then as now, confessed to one another and were formally absolved.
Navegação por posts
Indeed, the confessional at times became the locus of seduction. Entering the clergy he quickly acquired the reputation of an unblushing libertine. His successor, Sixtus IV , made his mark as an art patron, erecting the Sistine chapel. He also elevated to the cardinalate a number of handsome young men. Julius II , another art-loving pope, provoked such scandal that he was arraigned under various charges, including that of sodomy, but he managed to survive the attempt to depose him.
His successor, the extravagant Medici Leo X , became embroiled in intrigues to advance favorite nephews, a hobby that strained the treasury to the utmost. The anticlerical literature of that period still needs study for the light that it can shed on the homosexual subculture of the clerical milieux. The Rule of St. Benedict , chapter Let them sleep singly in separate beds.
Let them receive bedding suitable to their manner of life, at the discretion of the abbot. If it can be done, let all sleep in one room: but if their number does not allow of this, let them repose by tens or by twenties with their seniors who have charge of them. Let a candle burn continually in the dormitory until morning.
Let them sleep clothed and girded with girdles or cords, but let them not have knives at their sides while they sleep, lest by chance while dreaming they wound a sleeper; and let them be monks always ready; and upon the signal being given let them rise without delay and hasten one after the other, yet with all gravity and decorum, to be ready in good time for the Work of God. Let not the younger brethren have their beds by themselves, but among those of the seniors: and let them be allowed gently to encourage one another as they rise for the Work of God, because some may feel drowsy and listless.
The now-familiar pulp comic book was a creation of the Depression: the first commercial example is Famous Funnies of Although these strips generally affirmed middle-class values, and certainly contained not the slightest overt indication of sex, they were regularly denounced by pundits as a pernicious influence on the young. This aspect was certainly flirted with in the campy television off-shoot beginning in , though this series reflects a much changed cultural climate.
In there appeared Wonder-woman , featuring an Amazon with special powers living on an all-woman island. This strip — contrary to the expressed wishes of its creators — served as a focus for lesbian aspirations. In the late s Blade drew several illustrated stories, including The Barn and Truck Hiker , that can be considered predecessors of the gay comics. Circulated underground, they have been officially published only in recent years.
Geografia – Seclusão Anagógica
Somewhat later the wordless strips of supermacho types created by Tom of Finland began to circulate in Europe. It was the American counterculture of the s, however, which first made possible the exploration of taboo subjects in a context of crumbling censorship restrictions. Modeled on a popular television series, Harry Chess was both macho and campy, though explicit sex scenes were veiled.
In the s no-holds-barred examples appeared drawn by such artists as Bill Ward , Sean , and Stephen Meatman. Others have reported a sudden revelation of their own homosexuality which does not fit into any theory of stages but has brought them from apparently heterosexual to comfortably homosexual virtually overnight. Those who do not come out to their family, according to G. Achilles Tatius, Leucippe and Clitophon. Pseudo-Lucian, Affairs of the Heart. Of course radical political leaders were accustomed to decry the self-indulgence of the hippies, but their followers, as often as not, readily succumbed to the lure of psychedelic drugs and the happy times of group togetherness accompanied by ever present rock music.
Moreover, it meant that the adherents of the movement themselves quickly became back numbers as they crossed over the year line. In regard to gay adherents, the distrust of older people tended to reinforce the ageism already present in their own subculture.
To be sure, the full force of such problematic effects has become evident only in retrospect. Although outsiders, and some insiders as well, exaggerated the fusion of the counterculture and the New Left, still the convergence of massive cultural innovation with hopes for fundamental political change gave the young generation a heady sense of imminent revolution. Subsequent observation has shown, not surprisingly perhaps, that a majority of gay men and lesbians were and are liberal-reformist and even conservative, rather than revolutionary in then-overall political and social outlook.
At school I was taught to admire Plato and Aristotle, who recommend sodomy to youths — I am not so rebellious as to oppose their dictum; and in truth there seems to be no better way to avoid the contamination of woman and the morose pleasures of solitary vice.
- Rhythms of Rebellion Part II (United Academics Journal of Social Sciences Book 20124).
- [PDF] Hommes de lettres et la Res publica au Portugal et au Brésil - Free Download PDF.
- Kritik der arabischen Vernunft. Die Einführung (German Edition).